The district is located at 10.08°N 79.16°E in Central Tamil Nadu bounded on the northeast by Nagapattinam District, on the east by Tiruvarur District, on the south by the Palk Strait, of Bay of Bengal on the west by Pudukkottai District, and on the north by the river Kollidam, across which lie Tiruchirappalli and Perambalur districts. Thanjavur is the 11th largest city in Tamil Nadu. The district has a population density of 691 inhabitants per square kilometre (1,790 /sq mi) . Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 8.42 %. The town has an elevation of 57 m (187 ft) above mean sea level.

The period from November to February in Thanjavur is pleasant, with a climate full of warm days and cool nights. The onset of summer is from March, with the mercury reaching its peak by the end of May and June.

The fertile soil of Thanjavur is suitable to grow several agricultural crops of good quality rice, sugar cane, paddy, coconut and other crops. Agriculture is the backbone of the economy of the ancient city and most of the local indigenous inhabitants earn their livelihood from cultivating crops. Thanjavur is commonly referred to as the Rice Bowl of the state of Tamil Nadu for its excellent quality of rice.

One of the prominent cities of Tamil Nadu, Tanjavur is blessed with fertile agricultural land and suitable weather to grow crops. The geography of the ancient city offers complete facts about Thanjavur.

As of the 2011 census, Thanjavur municipality had a population of 222,619 and the urban agglomeration had a population of 290,732. , roughly equal to the nation of Kuwait or the US state of New Mexico. This gives it a ranking of 185th in India (out of a total of 640). The municipality had a sex ratio of 1,037 females per 1,000 males and 8.3% of the population were under six years old. Effective literacy was 91.48%; male literacy was 94.97% and female literacy was 88.14%.

In Thanjavur, 8.9% of the population is under 6 years of age. Tamil is the most widely spoken language. The standard dialect is the Central Tamil dialect. Telugu, Thanjavur Marathi and Saurashtra are also spoken. The population can easily adopt and accept new economic development. Thanjavur is the cultural and political center of the Thanjavur Marathi people. Hindus form the majority. The town has a substantial population of Muslims and Christians.

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